Самая первая женщина программист

30 11 2008


10 декабря 1815 года у великого английского поэта Байрона родилась дочь. Ее назвали Ада Августа. Когда ей исполнился год, Байрон оставил родину навсегда ради борьбы с несправедливостью, которой было много в Англии, но еще больше в других странах Европы. Он посылал Аде нежные и заботливые письма, посвящал стихи, но так и не нашел возможности встретиться с дочерью. Она выросла с матерью, имевшей богатое поместье и была во всем обеспечена, кроме одного - близости родного отца.

Возможно это обстоятельство вместе с высоким интеллектом, унаследованным от гения, способствовали раннему повзрослению Ады и необычному для женщины того времени увлечению … математикой.

Судьба, лишив ее отца, была благосклонна в другом. В самом начале своих занятий математикой она познакомилась с Чарльзом Беббиджем, математиком, экономистом, разносторонне образованным человеком связавшим свою жизнь с идеей создания “аналитической машины” - первой в мире цифровой вычислительной машины с программным управлением.

Человечеству предстояло прожить еще более века, чтобы понять великий смысл и значение идеи Беббиджа, но Ада Августа Лавлейс (такой стала ее фамилия после замужества) сразу оценила изобретение своего доброго друга и вместе с ним пыталась обосновать и показать что оно сулит человечеству. Ее рукой более полуторастолетий тому назад были написаны программы поразительно схожие с программами, составленными позднее для первых ЭВМ. Можно лишь удивляться и восторгаться тому что сделала эта юная женщина.

Сам Беббидж оставил после себя только огромное количество чертежей, по которым изготовлялась (но не была закончена) машина. Ада Августа Лавлейс в примечаниях к статье итальянского математика Менабреа, прослушавшего лекции Беббиджа и пытавшегося описать его аналитическую машину, сделала изумительно точные, охватывающие перспективу использования подобных машин, примечания к статье.

“Многие лица, недостаточно знакомые с математикой, считают, что роль машины сводится к получению результатов в цифровой форме, а природа самой обработки данных должна быть арифметической и цифровой более чем алгебраической и аналитической. Это заблуждение. Машина может обрабатывать и объединять цифровые величины точно так, как если бы они были буквами или любыми другими символами общего характера и фактически она может выдать результаты в алгебраической форме… Она может выдавать результаты трех видов: символические результаты, …численные результаты и алгебраические в буквенных обозначениях.

…Нет конца демаркационной линии, ограничивающей возможности аналитической машины. Фактически аналитическую машину можно рассматривать как материальное и механическое выражение анализа.”

Несмотря на все старания Беббиджа и Лавлейс машину построить не удалось… Современники, не видя конкретного результата, разочаровались в работе ученого. Он опередил свое время. И сам понимал это: “Вероятно пройдет половина столетия, прежде чем кто-нибудь возьмется за такую малообещающую задачу без тех указаний, которые я оставил после себя. И если некто, не предостереженный моим примером, возьмет на себя эту задачу и достигнет цели в реальном конструировании машины, воплощающей в себя всю исполнительную часть математического анализа с помощью простых механических или других средств, я не побоюсь поплатиться своей репутацией в его пользу, т.к. только он один полностью сможет понять характер моих усилий и ценность их результатов”. После смерти Беббиджа Комитет Британской научной ассоциации, куда входили крупные ученые, рассмотрел вопрос, что делать с неоконченной аналитической машиной и для чего она может быть рекомендована.

К чести Комитета было сказано: “…Возможности аналитической машины простираются так далеко, что их можно сравнить только с пределами человеческих возможностей… Успешная реализация машины может означать эпоху в истории вычислений…”

К сожалению, дочери Байрона в 36 лет не стало… Вместе с выдающимся интеллектом отец передал ей и эту страшную наследственность - раннюю смерть - поэт умер в таком же возрасте…


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