Самый первый маяк в мире

30 11 2008


Можете ли вы представить себе шоссе, где абсолютно нет никаких предупредительных знаков, сообщающих о повреждениях, перекрестках, поворотах, близлежащих городах и центрах? Естественно, и морские пути требуют точно таких же знаков, и маяк является одним из них. Его свет показывает морякам путь в порт, с его помощью они могут определить свое положение в море, его свет предупреждает корабли об опасных рифах и скалах.

Первые маяки были небольшими башнями, на вершине которых стояли металлические корзины с горящим деревом или каменным углем. Вероятно, они стали появляться, как только люди стали выходить в море, то есть тысячи лет тому назад. Никто точно не знает, когда они появились. Но точно известно, что в VII веке до н.э. существовал хорошо известный маяк, стоявший на мысе Сигеум около Геллеспонта.

Самым известным маяком древних времен был мраморный маяк Фарос в Александрии, в Египте, названный в честь острова, на котором он стоял. Сегодня его стоимость оценивалась бы в 1 млн. долларов; он был признан одним из семи чудес света. В III веке до н.э. огонь, блиставший на его вершине, указывал кораблям путь в Александрию.

Римляне построили много известных маяков, например в Булони, на территории современной Франции, который работал до XVII века. Их маяки были маленькими и плохо построенными по сравнению с современными. Сейчас каждая страна с морским побережьем имеет комиссию в правительстве, которая занимается проблемами постройки и эксплуатации маяков.

Когда маяк может быть построен на суше, его конструкция довольно проста и он стоит не слишком дорого. Но когда он строится на скале, которую постоянно захлестывают волны, или на зыбучих песках, или на отмелях, должны быть решены трудные инженерные задачи.

Башня маяка может быть построена из твердого камня, например гранита, или облицована камнем, или состоять из железобетонной конструкции.


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